Inivitation scroll


The principle of framing is common to both cinema and still images. In filmmaking, however, framing can change during a shot depending on the camera movements.

So these movements have to be taken into account to describe a shot.

Also, framing makes it possible to associate a shot with a character’s optical viewpoint. In this case, we refer to a "point-of-view shot".

5.1 – Camera movements

The smallest camera movements are known as reframing.

Among the more pronounced camera movements, we differentiate between panning and tracking.

For a pan shot, the camera swivels on its pedestal, which remains stationary.

For a tracking shot, the camera moves along the ground on a platform or dolly that is mounted on rails (a dolly shot), and/or moves in the air using a mechanical arm (a crane shot).

The zoom lens makes it possible to simulate moving closer or further away from the subject without physically changing the camera position, but by simply varying the focal length of the lens.

5.2 – Body-mounted cameras

The expression "body-mounted camera" or "hand-held camera" refers to a camera that is not mounted on a fixed pedestal but carried by the camera operator.

The camera operator can then make all the movements that his body allows him.

The Steadicam system has improved the stability of framing with body-mounted cameras.

5.3 – Point-of-view shots

A "point-of-view shot" (POV shot) allows the spectator to adopt a character’s optical viewpoint, as if looking through the character’s eyes.

When a sequence is filmed in this way, we refer to the "subjective camera".